One is the turntable axis.
It can be rotated around the X-axis when placed on the worktable, which is defined as the A-axis, and the A-axis usually works within the range of 30 degrees to -120 degrees. There is also a turntable at the center of the watch, which when rotated about the Z axis at the position shown, is defined as the axis C and the axis C is 360 degrees. In this way, with the combination of axis A and axis C, the parts fixed on the table can be machined by the vertical spindle, except for the lower surface. The value of the minimum index axis A and axis C is usually 0.001 degrees, so that the workpiece can be divided into any angle, and can be processed inclined holes, inclined surfaces. If the axes A and C are linked with three linear axes X, Y, Z, complex spatial surfaces can be machined. Of course, this requires one, servos, and high-end software. The advantage of this arrangement is that the structure of the main shaft is relatively simple, the rigidity of the main shaft is very good, and the manufacturing cost is relatively low. However, the general workbench cannot be designed too large, and the weight of the load support is also small. Especially when the rotation of the axis A is greater than or equal to 90 degrees, the workpiece will bring a large rolling moment to the table during cutting.
The other is the rotation of the vertical spindle head.
The front end of the shaft is a turntable, which can be wound 360 degrees around the Z axis to be rotated around the axis C and also has an axis A, which can be rotated around the axis X, generally up to ±90 degrees, for achieving the same function. The advantage of this structure is that the machining spindle is very flexible, the worktable can also be designed to be large, and the huge motor housing can be handled in such a machining center. This design also has a great advantage when using the cutting machine to ball mill the surface, when the center line of the tool is perpendicular to the machined surface, the surface quality of the workpiece cut by the apex will be poor, due to the linear velocity of the zero-point apex line of the spherical milling cutter . The rotation of the spindle is designed to rotate the mandrel through an angle relative to the workpiece, so that the cutting ball mill avoids cutting vertices, ensuring line speed and improved quality surface finish. This structure is very popular in the machining of high-precision surface molds, which are difficult to achieve in rotary machining centers of the table. To achieve high rotational accuracy, the high-end rotary axis is also equipped with circular scale feedback with an indexing accuracy of a few seconds. Of course, the rotating structure of such a shaft is complicated, and the manufacturing cost is also high.
The vertical machining center of five-axis machining can carry out high-quality precision, high surface precision parts to meet the special requirements of aerospace automobiles, special material industries, thin-walled parts and high illumination accuracy. Get high-speed machining, not just provide the right high-speed CNC machine. At the same time, there must be a corresponding tool holder tool to be effective. The five-axis vertical machining center not only solves the problem of complex mold processing, but also provides a solution for the processing of complex structural parts. Five-axis machining centers are much more expensive than three-axis general-purpose machines. For those machines that require four-axis machining, users can add a rotary table to achieve this. You can save money by not having to buy a five-axis machine at a great price. .
Three-way vertical machining center with five axes for spindle rotation.
The gravity of the vertical machining center spindle drops, the radial force of the high-speed air bearing is equal, and the rotation characteristics are very good, so the speed can be increased. Generally speaking, the high speed can reach 1.2000r/min or higher, and the actual high speed of Zui has reached 40,000rpm. The spindle system is equipped with a circulating cooling device. The circulating cooling oil removes the heat generated by the high-speed rotation, cools down to the proper temperature through the refrigerator, and returns to the spindle system. The three linear axes of X, Y, and Z can also be linear encoder feedback, and the bidirectional positioning accuracy is within the micron level. Due to the rapid travel of 40 to 60 m/min or more, the ball screws of the X, Y, Z mainly use central cooling. As with the spindle system, circulating oil circulates through the center of the spindle to remove heat.
5-axis horizontal machining center.
There are two ways to rotate the axis of this type of machining center: one is the rotation of the horizontal spindle as the rotation axis, and the rotation axis of the worktable is added to perform five-axis linkage processing. This configuration is simple and flexible. For example, if the axis needs to be converted to, the table can be simply configured as a three-axis machining center, the horizontal conversion to the horizontal conversion of the spindle and the indexing of the table, the machining of the pentahedron of the workpiece, the manufacturing cost is reduced and it is very practical. The CNC axis of the worktable can also be set, and the smallest indexing value is 0.001 degrees, but without the link, it becomes a four-axis machining center with vertical and horizontal conversion, suitable for different processing requirements, and the price is very competitive.
The other is the traditional table rotation axis, the work axis of table A placed in the bed usually has a working range of 20 degrees to -100 degrees. There is also a B-axis turntable in the center of the table, and the B-axis can rotate 360 degrees in both directions. This 5-axis horizontal machining center has better connecting rod characteristics than and is often used to machine the complex surfaces of large impellers. Rotary axes can also be configured with feedback from circular encoders and can be indexed with an accuracy of a few seconds. Of course, the structure of the rotating shaft is complicated and expensive.