CNC Lathe Buying Guide What is a CNC lathe?CNC lathe is a machine tool mainly used for turning and processing rotating workpieces with turning tools. CNC lathe, that is, computer digital control lathe, is a kind of high precision and high efficiency automatic machine tool. It has a wide range of machining functions, and can process linear cylinders, sloping cylinders, circular arcs and various threads. The birth of CNC lathe has an epoch-making meaning for human machining production, and the workpiece production has also gone to the road of large volume, high precision and high stability since then. For a country, the proportion of CNC machine tools in all metal cutting equipment is an important parameter to measure its automation level, which has an important meaning for the development of national economy and the strength of the country.
How many types of CNC lathes are there?CNC lathe and turning center is a kind of automatic machine tool with high precision and high efficiency. Equipped with multi-station turret or power turret, the machine tool has a wide range of machining process performance, and can process linear cylindrical, diagonal cylindrical, circular arc and various threads, slots, worm gears and other complex workpieces, with linear interpolation, circular arc interpolation various compensation functions, and has played a good economic effect in the mass production of complex parts. There are many varieties and different specifications of CNC lathes, and they are generally classified as follows.CNC lathe classification – according to the function of CNC system
1) Full-function CNC lathe
This kind of lathe has high resolution, fast feeding speed (generally more than 15m/min), most of the feeding adopts semi-closed-loop DC or AC servo system, and the machine accuracy is relatively high, with CRT display, not only characters, but also graphics, man-machine dialogue, self-diagnosis and other functions.
2) Economic CNC lathe
Most of the structure and layout of economic CNC lathes are similar to ordinary lathes, and generally adopt open-loop servo system driven by stepper motor and single-board or single-chip computer to realize the control function. The display mostly adopts digital tube or simple CRT character display.
3) CNC Turning center
Turning center is a full-featured CNC lathe as the main body, and configured tool magazine, tool changer, indexing device, milling power head and robot, etc.. After one clamping, it can complete a variety of machining processes such as turning, milling, drilling, reaming, tapping threads of rotary parts, etc. Its function is comprehensive, but the price is high.
4) FMC lathe
FMC lathe is actually a flexible processing unit composed of CNC lathe, robot, etc. It can realize the automation of workpiece handling, loading and unloading and the automation of processing adjustment preparation.CNC lathe classification – according to the configuration form of spindle axis
1) Horizontal CNC lathe
The CNC lathe whose main axis is in horizontal direction is called horizontal CNC lathe.
2)Vertical CNC lathe
The CNC lathe whose spindle axis is in vertical direction is called vertical CNC lathe. For the CNC lathe with two spindles, it is called two-axis horizontal CNC lathe or vertical CNC lathe.CNC lathe classification – according to the type of processed parts
1) chuck type CNC machine tools
This type of lathe is not set tailstock, suitable for turning disc parts. Its clamping method is mostly electric motor or hydraulic control, most of the chuck structure has jaws.
2) Item tip type CNC lathe
These lathes are equipped with common tailstock or CNC tailstock, suitable for turning longer shaft parts and less large diameter disc and sleeve parts.Classification of CNC lathe–According to the number of axes controlled by CNC system
1) 2 axis control CNC lathe
The machine has only one rotary tool holder, which can realize the control of two axes.
2)4 axis control CNC lathe
There are two independent rotary tool holders on the machine tool, which can realize the control of four coordinate axes.Other classification
According to the different control methods of CNC system and other indicators, CNC lathe can be divided into linear control CNC lathe, contour control CNC lathe, etc.; technical special or specialized process performance can be divided into thread CNC lathe, piston CNC lathe, crankshaft CNC lathe, etc.. In addition, now there is a new type of foreign CNC lathe, can turn quenched parts, called hard turning CNC lathe; and turning no quenched parts of the lathe called soft turning CNC lathe.