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CNC Lathe Buying Guide What is a CNC lathe?

CNC lathe is a machine tool mainly used for turning and processing rotating workpieces with turning tools. CNC lathe, that is, computer digital control lathe, is a kind of high precision and high efficiency automatic machine tool. It has a wide range of machining functions, and can process linear cylinders, sloping cylinders, circular arcs and various threads. The birth of CNC lathe has an epoch-making meaning for human machining production, and the workpiece production has also gone to the road of large volume, high precision and high stability since then. For a country, the proportion of CNC machine tools in all metal cutting equipment is an important parameter to measure its automation level, which has an important meaning for the development of national economy and the strength of the country.

How many types of CNC lathes are there?​

CNC lathe and turning center is a kind of automatic machine tool with high precision and high efficiency. Equipped with multi-station turret or power turret, the machine tool has a wide range of machining process performance, and can process linear cylindrical, diagonal cylindrical, circular arc and various threads, slots, worm gears and other complex workpieces, with linear interpolation, circular arc interpolation various compensation functions, and has played a good economic effect in the mass production of complex parts. There are many varieties and different specifications of CNC lathes, and they are generally classified as follows.CNC lathe classification – according to the function of CNC system

1) Full-function CNC lathe

This kind of lathe has high resolution, fast feeding speed (generally more than 15m/min), most of the feeding adopts semi-closed-loop DC or AC servo system, and the machine accuracy is relatively high, with CRT display, not only characters, but also graphics, man-machine dialogue, self-diagnosis and other functions.

2) Economic CNC lathe

Most of the structure and layout of economic CNC lathes are similar to ordinary lathes, and generally adopt open-loop servo system driven by stepper motor and single-board or single-chip computer to realize the control function. The display mostly adopts digital tube or simple CRT character display.

3) CNC Turning center

Turning center is a full-featured CNC lathe as the main body, and configured tool magazine, tool changer, indexing device, milling power head and robot, etc.. After one clamping, it can complete a variety of machining processes such as turning, milling, drilling, reaming, tapping threads of rotary parts, etc. Its function is comprehensive, but the price is high.

4) FMC lathe

FMC lathe is actually a flexible processing unit composed of CNC lathe, robot, etc. It can realize the automation of workpiece handling, loading and unloading and the automation of processing adjustment preparation.

CNC lathe classification – according to the configuration form of spindle axis

1) Horizontal CNC lathe

The CNC lathe whose main axis is in horizontal direction is called horizontal CNC lathe.

2)Vertical CNC lathe

The CNC lathe whose spindle axis is in vertical direction is called vertical CNC lathe. For the CNC lathe with two spindles, it is called two-axis horizontal CNC lathe or vertical CNC lathe.

CNC lathe classification – according to the type of processed parts

1) chuck type CNC machine tools

This type of lathe is not set tailstock, suitable for turning disc parts. Its clamping method is mostly electric motor or hydraulic control, most of the chuck structure has jaws.

2) Item tip type CNC lathe

These lathes are equipped with common tailstock or CNC tailstock, suitable for turning longer shaft parts and less large diameter disc and sleeve parts.

Classification of CNC lathe–According to the number of axes controlled by CNC system

1) 2 axis control CNC lathe

The machine has only one rotary tool holder, which can realize the control of two axes.

2)4 axis control CNC lathe

There are two independent rotary tool holders on the machine tool, which can realize the control of four coordinate axes.

Other classification

According to the different control methods of CNC system and other indicators, CNC lathe can be divided into linear control CNC lathe, contour control CNC lathe, etc.; technical special or specialized process performance can be divided into thread CNC lathe, piston CNC lathe, crankshaft CNC lathe, etc.. In addition, now there is a new type of foreign CNC lathe, can turn quenched parts, called hard turning CNC lathe; and turning no quenched parts of the lathe called soft turning CNC lathe.

How to buy a CNC lathe? --CNC lathe purchasing skills

1.Preparation: Determining the process requirements of typical parts, the batch of processed workpieces, and formulating the functions that CNC lathes should have are the prerequisites for reasonable selection of CNC lathes.2.Machine tool accessories and tool selection: machine tool random accessories, spare parts and their supply capacity, tools, for the CNC lathe has been put into production is very important. Select machine tools, need to carefully consider the tool and Fujian matching.3. Pay attention to the same nature of the control system: into production manufacturers should generally choose the same manufacturer’s products, or at least should buy the same manufacturer’s control system, which will bring great convenience to the maintenance work.4.According to the performance to price ratio to choose: to achieve the function, precision is not idle, not waste, do not choose and their irrelevant function.

Maintenance of CNC lathe:

1.Do a good job in the management of the CNC system, the development of a reasonable maintenance system CNC machine tools on the workplace temperature, humidity, gas and other high requirements, in the use of the process, to do a good job of CNC machine management, the development of a reasonable maintenance system. Do a good job of maintenance of CNC machine tools, enterprises need to develop a reasonable maintenance system and improve the operating procedures, combined with the development of technology and the actual needs of the existing system and procedures to update, to keep up with the times. At the same time, enterprises should do a good job in the management of CNC systems, strengthen the management of CNC systems to prevent miscellaneous work, timely cleaning of CNC machine tools within the dust and impurities, etc., for the use of CNC machine tools to provide a clean workplace; do a good job of CNC cabinet ventilation system cleaning, timely cleaning of the ventilation system to ensure that the heat generated by CNC machine tools work in a timely manner, to provide protection for the normal work of CNC machine tools.2.Do a good job of mechanical system maintenance work CNC machine tools play an important role in the production of machinery, CNC machine tool maintenance work is paying more and more attention to the maintenance of CNC machine tools has become an important task of the industry. Do a good job of maintenance of CNC machine tools, to strengthen the maintenance of mechanical systems, including the main drive chain, hydraulic system, pneumatic system, machine tool precision maintenance work. Do a good job of maintenance of the main drive chain, to regularly adjust the spindle drive belt tightness, but also check the temperature range of the spindle lubrication of the thermostatic oil tank, the amount of oil replenishment and cleaning filter; hydraulic system as the power system of CNC machine tools, to strengthen the regular inspection of the hydraulic system, regularly check the oil in the tank, coolers and heaters, hydraulic parts, filter elements and other components of the hydraulic system. Enterprises should do a good job of mechanical system maintenance, strengthen the mechanical system maintenance work investment, for the normal use of CNC machine tools to provide hardware protection.

What is C-axis of CNC lathe?

Turning machining center adds C-axis and power head on the basis of ordinary CNC lathe, and the more advanced CNC lathe with tool magazine can control X, Z and C axes, and the linked control axes can be (X, Z), (X, C) or (Z, C). Due to the increase of C axis and milling power head, the processing function of this CNC lathe is greatly enhanced, and it can carry out radial and axial milling, surface milling, drilling of holes whose center line is not in the center of rotation of the part and radial holes, etc. in addition to general turning. It is the spindle has precise indexing function and has power tool function.


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