The materials usually processed by lathes are free-cutting steel and copper. Free-cutting steel contains materials with high sulfur and phosphorus content. Sulphur and manganese exist in the form of manganese sulfide in steel.
The materials commonly used in modern lathe processing use aluminum alloy materials. The density of aluminum alloy materials is greatly reduced compared to the density of iron and steel materials, and the lathe processing difficulty is low, the plasticity is strong, the product weight is greatly reduced, and the lathe processing parts are greatly shortened. The time comes with the reduction in cost making aluminum alloy the darling of the aviation accessories field.
A lathe is a machine tool that mainly uses a turning tool to turn a rotating workpiece. On the lathe, drills, reamers, reamers, taps, dies and knurling tools can also be used for corresponding processing. With the continuous development of CNC technology and the expansion of application fields, it plays an increasingly important role in the development of some important industries (IT, automobile, light industry, medical care, etc.) It is a major trend of modern development.
1. Straight-forward method: general thread, small pitch, and fine-pitch thread can all use straight-forward method! The machining method is to cut the thread by dividing feed (diameter direction) without changing the Z axis (axial direction) of the tool during the machining process.
2. Left and right feed method: For machining parts with large pitch, multi-thread and other parts, because the machining surface is too wide, the contact surface is large. If the straight-forward method is used, it will have a great impact on the machine tool, cutting tool, and workpiece, and even cause the phenomenon of knife punching, knife sticking, lathe boring and so on. Therefore, only the left and right feed method can be used to complete. The processing method is to process one side of the thread, finish processing the other side, and finally polish the two sides and the bottom surface.
3. The oblique method and the oblique method are used for thread turning. The small slide plate can only be used for micro-feeding in one direction (left or right), which is easy to operate and will not make mistakes. It can avoid the phenomenon of double-sided cutting and tying, and can make the flank smooth, and improve the thread quality and production efficiency.
The processing object is wide, and the adjustment range of spindle speed and feed is large, and it can process the inner and outer surface, end face and inner and outer thread of the workpiece. This lathe is mainly operated by workers manually, with low production efficiency, and is suitable for single-piece and small batch production and repairing workshop.
2、Turret and rotary lathe
It has turret tool holder or rotary tool holder which can be equipped with multiple tools, so that workers can use different tools to complete multiple processes in one clamping of the workpiece, which is suitable for batch production.
It can automatically complete the multi-process processing of small and medium-sized workpieces according to certain procedures, and can automatically load and unload and repeatedly process a batch of the same workpieces, which is suitable for mass and mass production.
4、Multi-cutter semi-automatic lathe
There are single-axis, multi-axis, horizontal and vertical lathes. The layout form of single-axis horizontal lathe is similar to that of ordinary lathe, but two sets of tool holders are installed in the front and rear of the spindle or up and down respectively for processing disk, ring and shaft workpieces, and its productivity is 3 to 5 times higher than that of ordinary lathe.
It can imitate the shape and size of the sample plate or sample parts and automatically complete the machining cycle of the workpiece (see imitation machine tool), which is suitable for small batch and batch production of workpieces with more complicated shapes, and its productivity is 10-15 times higher than that of ordinary lathe. There are multiple tool holders, multi-axis, chuck type, vertical and other types.
The spindle is perpendicular to the horizontal plane, the workpiece is clamped on the horizontal rotary table, and the tool holder moves on the cross beam or column. It is suitable for processing larger and heavier workpieces which are difficult to be installed on ordinary lathes, and is divided into two categories: single-column and double-column.
7、Shovel tooth lathe
While turning, the tool holder makes radial reciprocating motion periodically, which is used to shovel the shaped tooth surface of milling cutters and hobs. It is usually equipped with shovel grinding attachment, and the tooth surface is shoveled by a small grinding wheel driven by a separate motor.
Lathe for processing specific surface of certain kinds of workpieces, such as crankshaft lathe, camshaft lathe, wheel lathe, axle lathe, roll lathe and ingot lathe, etc.
It is mainly used for turning processing, but after attaching some special parts and accessories, it can also be used for boring, milling, drilling, inserting, grinding and other processing, which has the characteristics of multifunctional machine and is suitable for the repair work on engineering vehicles, ships or mobile repair stations.
The gap lathe has a sunken bed at the left end of the headbox, which can accommodate the parts with large diameter. The shape of the lathe is high at both ends and low in the middle, shaped like a gap, so it is called gap lathe.
The gap lathe is suitable for processing parts with large radial dimension and small axial dimension, suitable for turning outer circle, inner hole, end face, groove and metric system, imperial system, modulus and warp thread of the workpiece, and also for drilling, boring, reaming and other processes, especially suitable for single-piece and batch production enterprises.
The gap lathe can process larger diameter workpieces in the gap slot. The machine guide is hardened and finely ground, which is convenient and reliable for operation. The lathe has the characteristics of high power, high speed, strong rigidity, high precision and low noise.